*The world looks so different after learning science. For example, trees are made of air, primarily. When they are burned, they go back to air, and in the flaming heat is released the flaming heat of the sun which was bound in to convert the air into tree. And in the ash is the small remnant of the part which did not come from air, that came from the solid earth, instead.*

*These are beautiful things, and the content of science is wonderfully full of them. They are very inspiring, and they can lead us to inspire others.*

*Richard Feynman*

**The Right Hand Rule.**

There are in fact, several "Right Hand Rules"

All of them are useful for determining directional relationships between vectors,

without the "math".

In ISM Advanced Physics you will learn how to use the Right Hand Rule.

You will also learn the "math".

Vector Cross Products

There are in fact, several "Right Hand Rules"

All of them are useful for determining directional relationships between vectors,

without the "math".

In ISM Advanced Physics you will learn how to use the Right Hand Rule.

You will also learn the "math".

Vector Cross Products

**ISM Advanced Physics is an introduction to electricity and magnetism.**

The video above demonstrates physics in action.

15,000 volt transformer + capacitor + plastic baby = fire.

Please note:

This demo is fun and students really like it.

This demo is also an effective instructional tool.

This demo vividly demonstrates several key features of electromagnetism.

1. The principle of electromagnetic induction and the operation of transformers.

2. The operation of capacitors.

3. Resonance in LC circuits.

4. Dielectric Breakdown.

5. Ionization of air and the creation of plasma.

All of these concepts are discussed before and after the demo.

At ISM we show demos to introduce and/or reinforce concepts.

For example, everyone has heard of explosive decompression, right?

What about explosive recompression?

What better way to show the difference between 14 p.s.i. and near vacuum than to launch ping pong balls at near supersonic velocities...

The video above demonstrates physics in action.

15,000 volt transformer + capacitor + plastic baby = fire.

Please note:

This demo is fun and students really like it.

This demo is also an effective instructional tool.

This demo vividly demonstrates several key features of electromagnetism.

1. The principle of electromagnetic induction and the operation of transformers.

2. The operation of capacitors.

3. Resonance in LC circuits.

4. Dielectric Breakdown.

5. Ionization of air and the creation of plasma.

All of these concepts are discussed before and after the demo.

At ISM we show demos to introduce and/or reinforce concepts.

For example, everyone has heard of explosive decompression, right?

What about explosive recompression?

What better way to show the difference between 14 p.s.i. and near vacuum than to launch ping pong balls at near supersonic velocities...

**into a physics book.**

A first edition.

Pretty sure Halliday and Resnick would not mind.

A first edition.

Pretty sure Halliday and Resnick would not mind.

**At ISM students actually do ROCKET SCIENCE!**

WELCOME TO ISM ADVANCED PHYSICS!

**Physics II/Advanced Physics: The Electrical and Magnetic Universe**

**2018-2019 Mr. G The International School of Minnesota**

Textbook: Giancoli 7th Edition

The first purpose of this course is to greatly expand how you think about our physical reality (nature), and the second purpose is for you to learn how electricity and magnetism, two interrelated phenomena, work throughout our universe. And as a bonus, we use this course to introduce Modern Physics.

Textbook: Giancoli 7th Edition

The first purpose of this course is to greatly expand how you think about our physical reality (nature), and the second purpose is for you to learn how electricity and magnetism, two interrelated phenomena, work throughout our universe. And as a bonus, we use this course to introduce Modern Physics.

Click on the book to access the student companion site.

You MUST watch this. An oldie, but a goodie.

16_lectureoutline.pdf | |

File Size: | 1754 kb |

File Type: |

Open this PDF to look at chapter 16 outline.

**ObjectivesAfter studying the material of this chapter, the student should be able to:**

1. State from memory the magnitude and sign of the charge on an electron and proton and also state the mass of each particle.

2. Apply Coulomb's law to determine the magnitude of the electrical force between point charges separated by a distance

3. State from memory the law of conservation of charge.

4. Distinguish between an insulator, a conductor, and a semi conductor and give examples of each.

5. Explain the concept of electric field and determine the resultant electric field at a point some distance from two or more point charges.

6. Determine the magnitude and direction of the electric force on a charged particle placed in an electric field.

7. Sketch the electric field pattern in the region between charged objects.

8. Use Gauss's law to determine the magnitude of the electric field in problems where static electric charge is distributed on a surface which is simple and symmetrical.

1. State from memory the magnitude and sign of the charge on an electron and proton and also state the mass of each particle.

2. Apply Coulomb's law to determine the magnitude of the electrical force between point charges separated by a distance

*r*and state whether the force will be one of attraction or repulsion.3. State from memory the law of conservation of charge.

4. Distinguish between an insulator, a conductor, and a semi conductor and give examples of each.

5. Explain the concept of electric field and determine the resultant electric field at a point some distance from two or more point charges.

6. Determine the magnitude and direction of the electric force on a charged particle placed in an electric field.

7. Sketch the electric field pattern in the region between charged objects.

8. Use Gauss's law to determine the magnitude of the electric field in problems where static electric charge is distributed on a surface which is simple and symmetrical.

**WEEK 1**

Monday: Read ch 16, discuss and demonstrate sources of charge. HW to be announced.

Tuesday: Introduce Coulomb's law and work problems. (together with me)

Wednesday: More problems involving Coulomb's law. (in groups)

Thursday: More problems involving Coulomb's law. (independent)

Friday: Test on static charge and Coulomb's law

Monday: Read ch 16, discuss and demonstrate sources of charge. HW to be announced.

Tuesday: Introduce Coulomb's law and work problems. (together with me)

Wednesday: More problems involving Coulomb's law. (in groups)

Thursday: More problems involving Coulomb's law. (independent)

Friday: Test on static charge and Coulomb's law

**WEEK 2**

Tuesday: Read about ELECTRIC FIELDS in CH 16. Define and calculate E fields. Work problems involving E fields.

Wednesday: More problems on E fields.

Thursday: Watch MECHANICAL UNIVERSE video on E fields.

Friday: Work problems on E fields. Quiz.

Tuesday: Read about ELECTRIC FIELDS in CH 16. Define and calculate E fields. Work problems involving E fields.

Wednesday: More problems on E fields.

Thursday: Watch MECHANICAL UNIVERSE video on E fields.

Friday: Work problems on E fields. Quiz.

WATCH THIS!!!!!!!

PLAY WITH THIS!!!!!

advsep5.pdf | |

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Bob 2 and Bob 7 repel one another.

**Bob 9 is a charged conductor. ALL the charge on Bob 9 is on his SURFACE. There is NO net charge inside Bob 9. And the E field inside Bob 9 is ZERO!!!!**

Please don't take my word on this. Google CHARGED CONDUCTORS.

Or, watch this really great video!

Please don't take my word on this. Google CHARGED CONDUCTORS.

Or, watch this really great video!

**WEEK 3**

**Monday: E fields in and around conductors. E field between parallel plates, motion of charges in E fields.**

Tuesday: Transferring charge from one sphere to another. (AP problem). Mixed problems.

Wednesday: Look at more released AP problems. E fields at center of square.

Thursday: Video on electric potential.

Friday: Lab. Measuring charge with Logger Pro.

Tuesday: Transferring charge from one sphere to another. (AP problem). Mixed problems.

Wednesday: Look at more released AP problems. E fields at center of square.

Thursday: Video on electric potential.

Friday: Lab. Measuring charge with Logger Pro.

Click on the image above to investigate E fields around various charge distributions.

advsep7.pdf | |

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advsep12.pdf | |

File Size: | 636 kb |

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**WEEK 4:**

Monday: Discuss and explain POTENTIAL and VOLTAGE.

Tuesday: Work problems involving POTENTIAL.

Wednesday: More problems.

Monday: Discuss and explain POTENTIAL and VOLTAGE.

Tuesday: Work problems involving POTENTIAL.

Wednesday: More problems.

WEEK OF OCTOBER 1 - 5

MONDAY: Test 1 Term 1. Begin reading chapter 18.

TUESDAY: Review test. Define, discuss electric current, resistance and Ohm's law. HW Page 521 1-5

WEDNESDAY: Define, discuss resistivity. HW Page 521 12,13.

THURSDAY: Define power. Watch video on electric circuits. Begin reading chapter 19.

FRIDAY: Work problems with simple series circuits.

WEEK OF OCTOBER 1 - 5

MONDAY: Test 1 Term 1. Begin reading chapter 18.

TUESDAY: Review test. Define, discuss electric current, resistance and Ohm's law. HW Page 521 1-5

WEDNESDAY: Define, discuss resistivity. HW Page 521 12,13.

THURSDAY: Define power. Watch video on electric circuits. Begin reading chapter 19.

FRIDAY: Work problems with simple series circuits.

**WEEK OF OCTOBER 8 -12 BEGIN READING CH 19**

MONDAY: Work resistivity problems, Kirchhoff's Loop Law and series circuits. Equivalent Resistance, Power in circuits.

TUESDAY: More series circuits. HW Page 552 4 -10

Wednesday: LAB on series circuits HW Page 553 22-27

FRIDAY: Practice test on series circuits

WEEK OF OCTOBER 15-19

MONDAY: Begin parallel circuits.

TUESDAY: Work problems. HW Page 552 16,17,18

WEDNESDAY: LAB on parallel circuits.

MONDAY: Work resistivity problems, Kirchhoff's Loop Law and series circuits. Equivalent Resistance, Power in circuits.

TUESDAY: More series circuits. HW Page 552 4 -10

Wednesday: LAB on series circuits HW Page 553 22-27

FRIDAY: Practice test on series circuits

WEEK OF OCTOBER 15-19

MONDAY: Begin parallel circuits.

TUESDAY: Work problems. HW Page 552 16,17,18

WEDNESDAY: LAB on parallel circuits.

**WEEK OF OCTOBER 22 - 26**

MONDAY: Internal Resistance in Batteries. Terminal Voltage vs. "Labeled" Voltage.

TUESDAY: Work more problems with complex circuits.

WEDNESDAY: LAB ON COMPLEX CIRCUITS.

THURSDAY: Review lab.

FRIDAY: PRACTICE TEST

MONDAY: Internal Resistance in Batteries. Terminal Voltage vs. "Labeled" Voltage.

TUESDAY: Work more problems with complex circuits.

WEDNESDAY: LAB ON COMPLEX CIRCUITS.

THURSDAY: Review lab.

FRIDAY: PRACTICE TEST

All problems courtesy of LEARN AP PHYSICS

Build and analyze this circuit using PHET.

**WEEK OF OCTOBER 29 TO NOVEMBER 2**

MONDAY: LAB: Building a circuit with a RHEOSTAT.

TUESDAY: Talk about lab.

WEDNESDAY: LAB DUE. Practice problems.

THURSDAY: Practice test.

FRIDAY: Talk about "Bob", cool songs from the 80's.

MONDAY: LAB: Building a circuit with a RHEOSTAT.

TUESDAY: Talk about lab.

WEDNESDAY: LAB DUE. Practice problems.

THURSDAY: Practice test.

FRIDAY: Talk about "Bob", cool songs from the 80's.

**WEEK OF NOVEMBER 26 TO NOVEMBER 30**

MONDAY:

MONDAY:

**Capacitor BASICS I.**

**TUESDAY: Capacitor BASICS II**

WEDNESDAY: DIELECTRICS.

THURSDAY: Capacitors in series and parallel.

FRIDAY: Capacitors and resistors in circuits, steady state and transient behavior.

WEDNESDAY: DIELECTRICS.

THURSDAY: Capacitors in series and parallel.

FRIDAY: Capacitors and resistors in circuits, steady state and transient behavior.

**WEEK OF DEC 3 TO DEC 7**

**MONDAY: Work selected capacitor problems from text.**

TUESDAY: LAB: Use logger pro to generate V and I vs. time graphs for charging and discharging a capacitor.

WEDNESDAY: Review lab. Discuss, explain and work problems with DIELECTRICS.

THURSDAY: Take a practice test on capacitors.

FRIDAY: Review test.

TUESDAY: LAB: Use logger pro to generate V and I vs. time graphs for charging and discharging a capacitor.

WEDNESDAY: Review lab. Discuss, explain and work problems with DIELECTRICS.

THURSDAY: Take a practice test on capacitors.

FRIDAY: Review test.

**WEEK OF DEC 10 TO DEC 14**

MONDAY: Finish and turn in capacitor lab.

TUESDAY: Practice test on RC circuits.

WEDNESDAY: Review test, begin MAGNETISM.

THURSDAY: Forces on moving charges, RIGHT HAND RULE.

FRIDAY: MAGNETISM AND SPECIAL RELATIVITY. This is when things start getting weird.

MONDAY: Finish and turn in capacitor lab.

TUESDAY: Practice test on RC circuits.

WEDNESDAY: Review test, begin MAGNETISM.

THURSDAY: Forces on moving charges, RIGHT HAND RULE.

FRIDAY: MAGNETISM AND SPECIAL RELATIVITY. This is when things start getting weird.

**Read chapter 20!!!**

**Please watch this movie.**

**WEEK OF DEC 17 TO DEC 21**

MONDAY: Describe motion of charged particles in B fields. Practice RIGHT HAND RULE. Relate magnetic force with CENTRIPETAL force on charges moving in uniform B fields.

TUESDAY: Describe, calculate forces on current carrying wires in B fields. Work some problems from text. Click here.

WEDNESDAY: Describe sources of B fields. Discuss B fields around current carrying wires.

THURSDAY: LAB: Measuring the B field near a straight current carrying wire.

FRIDAY: Review lab. Compare results.

MONDAY: Describe motion of charged particles in B fields. Practice RIGHT HAND RULE. Relate magnetic force with CENTRIPETAL force on charges moving in uniform B fields.

TUESDAY: Describe, calculate forces on current carrying wires in B fields. Work some problems from text. Click here.

WEDNESDAY: Describe sources of B fields. Discuss B fields around current carrying wires.

THURSDAY: LAB: Measuring the B field near a straight current carrying wire.

FRIDAY: Review lab. Compare results.

20_lectureoutline.pdf | |

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File Type: |

**WEEK OF JAN 7 TO JAN 11**

MONDAY: Introduce Ampere's Law. Work problems on B fields around straight wires. Force between wires and forces on charged particles moving near wires.

TUESDAY: Work MORE problems involving B fields around wires.

WEDNESDAY: Compare and contrast Ampere's Law and Gauss's Law.

THURSDAY: Introduce Bio-Savart Law. Compare and contrast with Coulomb's law.

FRIDAY: Practice test on sources of B fields and motion of charged particles in B fields.

MONDAY: Introduce Ampere's Law. Work problems on B fields around straight wires. Force between wires and forces on charged particles moving near wires.

TUESDAY: Work MORE problems involving B fields around wires.

WEDNESDAY: Compare and contrast Ampere's Law and Gauss's Law.

THURSDAY: Introduce Bio-Savart Law. Compare and contrast with Coulomb's law.

FRIDAY: Practice test on sources of B fields and motion of charged particles in B fields.

DOWNLOAD THIS TEST LOOK AT M.C. QUESTIONS

6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 20, 22, 32, AND 34.

I will explain the answers in the video below.

**WEEK OF JAN 14 TO JAN 18**

Go over practice test and work more problems and take term 2 periodic 1.

Go over practice test and work more problems and take term 2 periodic 1.

WEEK OF JAN 22-25

READ CH 21

After studying the material of this chapter, the student should be able to:

1. Determine the magnitude of the magnetic flux through a surface of known area, given the strength of the magnetic field and the angle between the direction of the magnetic field and the surface.

2. Write a statement of Faraday's law in terms of changing magnetic flux. Use Faraday's law to determine the magnitude of the induced emf in a closed loop due to a change in the magnetic flux through the loop.

3. Use Faraday's law to determine the magnitude of the induced emf in a straight wire moving through a magnetic field.

4. State Lenz' law and use Ohm's law and Lenz's law to determine the magnitude and direction of the induced current.

5. Explain the basic principle of the electric generator. Determine the magnitude of the maximum value of the induced emf in a loop which is rotating at a constant rate in a uniform magnetic field.

6. Explain how an eddy current can be produced in a piece of metal. Also, describe situations in which eddy currents are beneficial and situations in which they must be eliminated.

7. Explain how a transformer can be used to step up or step down the voltage. Apply the equations which relate number of turns, voltages, and currents in the primary and secondary coils to solve transformer problems.

TUESDAY:

1. Determine the magnitude of the magnetic flux through a surface of known area, given the strength of the magnetic field and the angle between the direction of the magnetic field and the surface.

2. Write a statement of Faraday's law in terms of changing magnetic flux. Use Faraday's law to determine the magnitude of the induced emf in a closed loop due to a change in the magnetic flux through the loop.

3. Use Faraday's law to determine the magnitude of the induced emf in a straight wire moving through a magnetic field.

WEDNESDAY:

1. Work problems involving rails and B fields.

2. Derive equations for induced emf in rail problems

3. Discuss operation of a rail gun.

THURSDAY:

1. Discuss induction between 2 solenoids.

2. Discuss Lenz' Law and determine direction of induce current in a solenoid.

FRIDAY:

1. State Lenz' law and use Ohm's law and Lenz's law to determine the magnitude and direction of the induced current.

2. Demonstrate induction between 2 coils. Discuss operation of transformers.

WEEK OF JAN 28 TO FEB 1:

MONDAY: A brief discussion of RAIL GUNS and finish video on AC currents and the war between Edison and Tesla.

TUESDAY: Discuss operation of transformers.

WEDNESDAY: Work some released AP problems on induction.

THURSDAY: Talk about and discuss INDUCTORS IN DC CIRCUITS.

FRIDAY: Work some problems involving INDUCTORS IN CIRCUITS.

WEEK OF FEB 4 TO FEB 8

Pretty much everything we were supposed to do last week.

Specifically,

MONDAY: Finish video on AC current. Discuss the behavior of TRANSFORMERS.

TUESDAY: Discuss and describe the behavior of inductors in DC circuits. (see video below)

WEDNESDAY: Review for periodic 2.

THURSDAY: Take periodic 2. (I Think?)

FRIDAY: Review periodic 2.

WEEK OF FEB 4 TO FEB 8

Pretty much everything we were supposed to do last week.

Specifically,

MONDAY: Finish video on AC current. Discuss the behavior of TRANSFORMERS.

TUESDAY: Discuss and describe the behavior of inductors in DC circuits. (see video below)

WEDNESDAY: Review for periodic 2.

THURSDAY: Take periodic 2. (I Think?)

FRIDAY: Review periodic 2.

ObjectivesAfter studying the material of this chapter, the student should be able to:

1. Give a nonmathematical summary of Maxwell's equations.

2. Describe how electromagnetic waves are produced.

3. Draw a diagram representing the field strengths of an electromagnetic wave produced by a sinusoidally varying source of emf.

4. Calculate the velocity of electromagnetic waves in a vacuum if both the permittivity and permeability of free space are given.

5. State the names given to the different segments of the electromagnetic spectrum.

6. State the approximate range of wavelengths associated with each segment of the electromagnetic spectrum.

1. Give a nonmathematical summary of Maxwell's equations.

2. Describe how electromagnetic waves are produced.

3. Draw a diagram representing the field strengths of an electromagnetic wave produced by a sinusoidally varying source of emf.

4. Calculate the velocity of electromagnetic waves in a vacuum if both the permittivity and permeability of free space are given.

5. State the names given to the different segments of the electromagnetic spectrum.

6. State the approximate range of wavelengths associated with each segment of the electromagnetic spectrum.

**WEEK OF FEB 11 TO FEB 15**

MONDAY: Begin Chapter 22. Introduce Maxwell's Equations.

TUESDAY: MECHANICAL UNIVERSE VIDEO on Maxwell's Equations.

WEDNESDAY: Examine in detail Gauss' Law for E fields and B fields.

THURSDAY: Examine in detail Faraday's Law and Ampere's Law.

FRIDAY: REVISION?

MONDAY: Begin Chapter 22. Introduce Maxwell's Equations.

TUESDAY: MECHANICAL UNIVERSE VIDEO on Maxwell's Equations.

WEDNESDAY: Examine in detail Gauss' Law for E fields and B fields.

THURSDAY: Examine in detail Faraday's Law and Ampere's Law.

FRIDAY: REVISION?

**WEEK OF FEB 19 - 22**

MONDAY: Work more problems with GAUSS'S LAW.

TUESDAY: Work more problems with AMPERE'S LAW.

WEDNESDAY: Work more detailed problems with FARADAY'S LAW.

THURSDAY: Look at released AP problems involving GAUSS'S LAW and AMPERE'S LAW

FRIDAY: Look at released AP problems involving FARADAY'S LAW

MONDAY: Work more problems with GAUSS'S LAW.

TUESDAY: Work more problems with AMPERE'S LAW.

WEDNESDAY: Work more detailed problems with FARADAY'S LAW.

THURSDAY: Look at released AP problems involving GAUSS'S LAW and AMPERE'S LAW

FRIDAY: Look at released AP problems involving FARADAY'S LAW

**TERM 2 REVISION GUIDE**

advanced_physics_term_2_revision_guide.pdf | |

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**Sphere centered on origin. Notice that since a 3d coordinate system has 8 octants, 1/8 of the sphere is in octant 1.**

Gauss' Law tells us that the flux through any closed surface is Q/epsilon 0. So the flux through octant 1 is 1/8 Q/epsilon 0.

Gauss' Law tells us that the flux through any closed surface is Q/epsilon 0. So the flux through octant 1 is 1/8 Q/epsilon 0.

**Now there is a cube in octant 1 nicely nestled on the x,y and z axis.**

The question is, what is the flux through the top of the cube? (the sphere of charge is still there)

This is a very challenging problem. It requires some pretty abstract reasoning and visualization skills.

Notice first, that for faces of the cube on the x-y, y-z and z-x planes, the flux through those faces is ZERO. Why?

So that leaves 3 faces. The top, the side facing you and the right face (shaded).

The flux through each of these faces is 1/3 the total flux through octant 1. So...

1/3 of 1/8 is 1/24th Q/epsilon 0!

The question is, what is the flux through the top of the cube? (the sphere of charge is still there)

This is a very challenging problem. It requires some pretty abstract reasoning and visualization skills.

Notice first, that for faces of the cube on the x-y, y-z and z-x planes, the flux through those faces is ZERO. Why?

So that leaves 3 faces. The top, the side facing you and the right face (shaded).

The flux through each of these faces is 1/3 the total flux through octant 1. So...

1/3 of 1/8 is 1/24th Q/epsilon 0!

**Click the image above to read the original paper (translated in English)**

**WEEK OF MARCH 11 TO MARCH 15**

MONDAY: Review final exam.

TUESDAY: Discuss the concept of the "Aether" and the Michelson Morley Experiment.

WEDNESDAY: Watch video on Michelson Morley Experiment and discuss.

THURSDAY: Discuss Lorentz Transforms and interpretation of.

FRIDAY: Watch video on Lorentz Transform.

MONDAY: Review final exam.

TUESDAY: Discuss the concept of the "Aether" and the Michelson Morley Experiment.

WEDNESDAY: Watch video on Michelson Morley Experiment and discuss.

THURSDAY: Discuss Lorentz Transforms and interpretation of.

FRIDAY: Watch video on Lorentz Transform.

**YOU REALLY NEED TO READ THIS**

**WEEK OF MARCH 18 TO MARCH 22**

MONDAY: Finish video on Lorentz Transform. Discuss relativity of simultaneity.

TUESDAY: Discuss LIGHT CONES and CAUSAL STRUCTURE.

WEDNESDAY: Begin Nova video on Einstein.

THURSDAY: Finish Nova video on Einstein.

FRIDAY: Begin discussion on GENERAL RELATIVITY.

MONDAY: Finish video on Lorentz Transform. Discuss relativity of simultaneity.

TUESDAY: Discuss LIGHT CONES and CAUSAL STRUCTURE.

WEDNESDAY: Begin Nova video on Einstein.

THURSDAY: Finish Nova video on Einstein.

FRIDAY: Begin discussion on GENERAL RELATIVITY.

**WEEK OF MARCH 25 TO MARCH 28**

MONDAY: Finish Nova video on Einstein.

TUESDAY: Discuss the meaning of the EQUIVALENCE PRINCIPLE. Give examples.

WEDNESDAY: Discuss Einstein's BIGGEST BLUNDER. Steady State vs. Expanding universe.

THURSDAY: Discuss evidence and predictions of GENERAL RELATIVITY.

MONDAY: Finish Nova video on Einstein.

TUESDAY: Discuss the meaning of the EQUIVALENCE PRINCIPLE. Give examples.

WEDNESDAY: Discuss Einstein's BIGGEST BLUNDER. Steady State vs. Expanding universe.

THURSDAY: Discuss evidence and predictions of GENERAL RELATIVITY.

**WEEK OF APRIL 8 TO APRIL 12**

MONDAY: Discuss Bohr model of the atom. Work problems involving energy levels and transitions for HYDROGEN.

TUESDAY: Discuss PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT and work related problems.

WEDNESDAY: Discuss wave/particle duality. Use PHET Fourier transform applet.

THURSDAY: Discuss double slit experiment and uncertainty. Discuss observer dependent reality.

FRIDAY: Discuss EPR and interpretations of. Discuss WOO WOO PHYSICS.

MONDAY: Discuss Bohr model of the atom. Work problems involving energy levels and transitions for HYDROGEN.

TUESDAY: Discuss PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT and work related problems.

WEDNESDAY: Discuss wave/particle duality. Use PHET Fourier transform applet.

THURSDAY: Discuss double slit experiment and uncertainty. Discuss observer dependent reality.

FRIDAY: Discuss EPR and interpretations of. Discuss WOO WOO PHYSICS.

**Another movie about Another Earth. Woo Physics. But never mind the physics. The movie is really about The Human Condition.**

I liked it.

I liked it.

**Another independent movie.**

Most TIME TRAVEL movies get it all wrong.

This movie gets it ALL RIGHT.

Most TIME TRAVEL movies get it all wrong.

This movie gets it ALL RIGHT.

YOUR NEXT PERIODIC. WHAT WILL YOU NEED TO KNOW?

It depends on which universe you wake up in Tuesday morning.

In the vast majority of possible universes (if there are an infinite number of universes, does a "majority" even make sense?) you should know the following.

1. Max Planck discovered his famous equation and constant while trying to explain blackbody radiation.

YOUR NEXT PERIODIC. WHAT WILL YOU NEED TO KNOW?

It depends on which universe you wake up in Tuesday morning.

In the vast majority of possible universes (if there are an infinite number of universes, does a "majority" even make sense?) you should know the following.

1. Max Planck discovered his famous equation and constant while trying to explain blackbody radiation.

**2. Planck's theory tells us several things about nature. 3 of these things are:**

1. Energy is absorbed or radiated in discreet packets having energy given by E = hf or hc/lambda.

2. The particles that make up matter have discreet rather than continuous energy distributions.

3. The laws that govern the very small seem to be very different from the laws that govern the very large (Newton's Law's, Maxwell's Equations).

Watch the Mechanical Universe video on Particles and Waves.

1. Energy is absorbed or radiated in discreet packets having energy given by E = hf or hc/lambda.

2. The particles that make up matter have discreet rather than continuous energy distributions.

3. The laws that govern the very small seem to be very different from the laws that govern the very large (Newton's Law's, Maxwell's Equations).

Watch the Mechanical Universe video on Particles and Waves.

**3. Niels Bohr was able to explain the discreet emission spectra of hydrogen and other elements by incorporating Planck's ideas to describe the structure of atoms. It worked great but was completely wacky in that it simply ignored certain aspects of "classical" physics. For example, orbiting electrons should be radiating all the time. But they don't.**

Why not?

Well, uhhhh. Classical (Maxwell) Physics just does not apply to quantum systems.

Yeah, but WHY NOT?

JUST BECAUSE! THAT'S WHY!

Oh, shut up.

No! YOU shut up!

4. You should be able to calculate photon wavelengths and kinetic energies of electrons for simple transitions in hydrogen atoms.

5. In 1905 Albert Einstein was able to explain the Photoelectric Effect by theorizing that light (a wave phenomenon) was actually composed of particles having energy dependent on the wavelength of the light.

6. You should be able to use the Photoelectric Equation to calculate wavelengths required to kick electrons out of metals, given the work function of the metal.

7. In 1924, Luis DeBroglie suggests that if waves can act like particles, then particles, like electrons, can act like waves. This turns out to be

one of THE CENTRAL FEATURES OF QUANTUM THEORY. Quantum Theory or Quantum Mechanics or Quantum Field Theory possess several of these "dualities". The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle is another. And the idea of Quantum Superposition is another.

The idea that the state of a quantum system can be viewed as a superposition of of other states is one of the reasons VECTORS work so well at describing quantum states.

Between 1925 and 1927, Werner Heisenberg and Erwin Schrodinger both developed what

Why not?

Well, uhhhh. Classical (Maxwell) Physics just does not apply to quantum systems.

Yeah, but WHY NOT?

JUST BECAUSE! THAT'S WHY!

Oh, shut up.

No! YOU shut up!

4. You should be able to calculate photon wavelengths and kinetic energies of electrons for simple transitions in hydrogen atoms.

5. In 1905 Albert Einstein was able to explain the Photoelectric Effect by theorizing that light (a wave phenomenon) was actually composed of particles having energy dependent on the wavelength of the light.

6. You should be able to use the Photoelectric Equation to calculate wavelengths required to kick electrons out of metals, given the work function of the metal.

7. In 1924, Luis DeBroglie suggests that if waves can act like particles, then particles, like electrons, can act like waves. This turns out to be

one of THE CENTRAL FEATURES OF QUANTUM THEORY. Quantum Theory or Quantum Mechanics or Quantum Field Theory possess several of these "dualities". The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle is another. And the idea of Quantum Superposition is another.

The idea that the state of a quantum system can be viewed as a superposition of of other states is one of the reasons VECTORS work so well at describing quantum states.

Between 1925 and 1927, Werner Heisenberg and Erwin Schrodinger both developed what

**would become an essential foundation of modern quantum field theory. Heisenberg created a system called Matrix Mechanics, which used matrices to calculate probabilities of the outcomes of measurements on quantum systems. Schrodinger developed a wave equation essentially based on conservation of energy that described the time evolution of a quantum system. It turns out that Heisenberg's Matrix Mechanics and Schrodinger's Wave Equations are essentially equivalent. Both of these theories say some goofy things about "reality".**

8. There is an inherent "fuzziness" or uncertainty built into the fundamental components of the universe. These uncertainties can involve, for example; position and momentum, or energy and time.

9. The outcomes of certain measurements depend on how the measurement is made.

10. When asked "How can this be?" the standard reply given by most physicists is "That's just how it is. Get over it." The scientific name for this line of reasoning is The Copenhagen Interpretation. Naturally this reminds me of a song.

8. There is an inherent "fuzziness" or uncertainty built into the fundamental components of the universe. These uncertainties can involve, for example; position and momentum, or energy and time.

9. The outcomes of certain measurements depend on how the measurement is made.

10. When asked "How can this be?" the standard reply given by most physicists is "That's just how it is. Get over it." The scientific name for this line of reasoning is The Copenhagen Interpretation. Naturally this reminds me of a song.

**A quantum mechanical probability cloud.**

Albert doesn't like it.

**11. Quantum Theory works. It makes testable predictions. And it has made possible technology that has changed civilization, for better or worse. Specifically the inventions of the transistor and laser. These devices utilize quantum phenomena like tunneling and coherence. You can thank quantum mechanics for your laptop, TV, cell phone, Play Station, jet fighters, drones, guided missiles, nuclear weapons, MRI, PET scans, CT scans, Gamma Ray Surgery, radio telescopes, X-ray telescopes and gravitational wave detectors.**

**12.**

*Why*quantum theory works is still being debated.

ADVANCED PHYSICS TERM 3 PERIODIC 1 REVIEW

PART 2

ADVANCED PHYSICS TERM 3 PERIODIC 1 REVIEW

PART 2

**1. The 2 most successful scientific theories of the 20th century are QUANTUM FIELD THEORY and SPECIAL AND GENERAL RELATIVITY.**

2. In the 19th and early 20th century scientists believed a "medium" or substance was required in order for light to propagate through space. This "stuff" was called the ETHER.

3. In 1887 two American physicisist designed an experiment to detect the motion of the Earth through the ether. View the video on this page on

THE MICHELSON MORLEY EXPERIMENT. The experiment failed to detect the ether.

4. In the early 20th century a young physicist named Albert Einstein was concerned about certain inconsistencies between Newton's Laws and Maxwell's equations. In 1905 he submitted a paper called ON THE ELECTRODYNAMICS OF MOVING BODIES. In this paper he dismissed the "ether" as superfluous and laid down two postulates. (1) The speed of light is constant for all observers, regardless of their state of motion. (2) The laws of physics are the same in all inertial reference frames.

5. The results of this paper require us to re-think our concepts of space and time. Please review the video on THE LORENTZ TRANSFORM.

6. A few years later Hermann Minkowski expressed Einstein's theory in geometric terms. He basically invented space-time diagrams as a way of understanding Special Relativity.

7. Einstein's General Theory of Relativity published in 1916 was a reformulation of Newton's theory of gravity. This theory describes gravity not as a force, but as the result of "curvature"of space-time. The mathematics of this theory are differential geometry and tensors.

8. Experimental evidence that General Relativity is correct began with observations of light paths being curved by gravity and some goofy things about the orbit of Mercury. The Latest experimental evidence for this theory is the detection of gravity waves and the recent image of a black hole event horizon in a nearby galaxy.

2. In the 19th and early 20th century scientists believed a "medium" or substance was required in order for light to propagate through space. This "stuff" was called the ETHER.

3. In 1887 two American physicisist designed an experiment to detect the motion of the Earth through the ether. View the video on this page on

THE MICHELSON MORLEY EXPERIMENT. The experiment failed to detect the ether.

4. In the early 20th century a young physicist named Albert Einstein was concerned about certain inconsistencies between Newton's Laws and Maxwell's equations. In 1905 he submitted a paper called ON THE ELECTRODYNAMICS OF MOVING BODIES. In this paper he dismissed the "ether" as superfluous and laid down two postulates. (1) The speed of light is constant for all observers, regardless of their state of motion. (2) The laws of physics are the same in all inertial reference frames.

5. The results of this paper require us to re-think our concepts of space and time. Please review the video on THE LORENTZ TRANSFORM.

6. A few years later Hermann Minkowski expressed Einstein's theory in geometric terms. He basically invented space-time diagrams as a way of understanding Special Relativity.

7. Einstein's General Theory of Relativity published in 1916 was a reformulation of Newton's theory of gravity. This theory describes gravity not as a force, but as the result of "curvature"of space-time. The mathematics of this theory are differential geometry and tensors.

8. Experimental evidence that General Relativity is correct began with observations of light paths being curved by gravity and some goofy things about the orbit of Mercury. The Latest experimental evidence for this theory is the detection of gravity waves and the recent image of a black hole event horizon in a nearby galaxy.

**Have you ever wondered... What would have happened if I made THIS choice instead of THAT choice?**

If so, you might like this movie.

If so, you might like this movie.

**And this movie.**

**In the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics, the outcome of any experiment depends on what you CHOOSE to measure.**

What if you don't choose?

What if you don't choose?

**WEEK OF MAY 6 TO MAY 10**

1. We will talk about WOMEN in SCIENCE.

2. We will review The Standard Model.

3. We will review Particle Accelerators and Detectors.

4. We will build a CLOUD CHAMBER and observe the tracks of ALPHA PARTICLES emitted by RADIOACTIVE dinner plates.

1. We will talk about WOMEN in SCIENCE.

2. We will review The Standard Model.

3. We will review Particle Accelerators and Detectors.

4. We will build a CLOUD CHAMBER and observe the tracks of ALPHA PARTICLES emitted by RADIOACTIVE dinner plates.

Things you should know for your next periodic.

**Who developed the first relativistic quantum field theory?**

**For example, there are 3 types of fundamental particles. Quarks, leptons and bosons.**

Quarks and leptons make up matter. Rocks, stars, people, penguins, Rock Stars and Penguin People.

Bosons are "messenger" particles. They mediate forces between matter particles.

There are three generations of matter particles. Each generation "heavier" than the next.

Since E = mc^2, masses of particles are usually expressed in electron volts/c^2, or just in Ev.

Only generation I particles are stable.

In the Standard Model there are three fundamental forces.

1. Electromagnetism

2. Weak Force

3. Strong Force

Actually, Electromagnetism and the Weak Force were unified in the 1970's.

The Standard model does not include Gravity : (

Quarks and leptons make up matter. Rocks, stars, people, penguins, Rock Stars and Penguin People.

Bosons are "messenger" particles. They mediate forces between matter particles.

There are three generations of matter particles. Each generation "heavier" than the next.

Since E = mc^2, masses of particles are usually expressed in electron volts/c^2, or just in Ev.

Only generation I particles are stable.

In the Standard Model there are three fundamental forces.

1. Electromagnetism

2. Weak Force

3. Strong Force

Actually, Electromagnetism and the Weak Force were unified in the 1970's.

The Standard model does not include Gravity : (

**You should understand the basic principles of PARTICLE ACCELERATORS AND DETECTORS.**

In particular:

CERN

FERMILAB

SLAC

RHIC

In particular:

CERN

FERMILAB

SLAC

RHIC

**MORE PRACTICE QUESTIONS FOR TERM 3 PERIODIC 2**

Name the fundamental forces of nature and describe where they act and what they do.

What is the name of our current description of the fundamental particles and forces in nature?

What force is not included in our description of fundamental particles and forces?

What area of mathematics plays a major role in our description of fundamental particles and forces?

A length scale where gravitation effects become important

Name the fundamental forces of nature and describe where they act and what they do.

What is the name of our current description of the fundamental particles and forces in nature?

What force is not included in our description of fundamental particles and forces?

What area of mathematics plays a major role in our description of fundamental particles and forces?

A length scale where gravitation effects become important

**in our description of fundamental particles and forces...**

Our current understanding of fundamental particles and forces is...

a. complete

b. incomplete

Name two possible "theories" that might give us a "Theory of Everything"

Our current understanding of fundamental particles and forces is...

a. complete

b. incomplete

Name two possible "theories" that might give us a "Theory of Everything"

Name a boson and describe its role in the standard model.

Name the fundamental particles that make up ordinary matter.

Name an example of a lepton.

What is the name given to particles that mediate the strong force?

Name the fundamental forces that are long range.

Name one particle in the standard model with zero mass.

Name three particle accelerators and where they are located.

What does QED stand for?

Draw a Feynman diagram representing an interaction between two electrons.

Name the fundamental particles that make up ordinary matter.

Name an example of a lepton.

What is the name given to particles that mediate the strong force?

Name the fundamental forces that are long range.

Name one particle in the standard model with zero mass.

Name three particle accelerators and where they are located.

What does QED stand for?

Draw a Feynman diagram representing an interaction between two electrons.

**The Roots Of Physical Reality**